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Rejected email with “No verifiable sender address” error

We had some specific domains won’t accept messages from email server, and users always recieve failure message.  When analyzed the failure message, it seems that the other server actually accpet the message and started the transfer, howeve after transfer complete the message is returned with the following error:

550 No verifiable sender address in message headers

Every was configure correctly on the mail server, and email transfer was going fine for other domains, and actually we were confused.   I had a look at the DNS records to see if there is something wrong, abd actually I did not find something wrong, but I noticed something different from what I did in the previous domains I worked in configuring them.

In our domain, the MX record pointed to the IP address of the mail server, but I remembered that before in another domain I made it point to the A record, so I decided to change it to see if it will help.

The A record was   mail.company.com points to the IP address of the mail server, and I changed the MX record topoint to that A record instead of the IP address.   After changing this every thing was going fine.

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Changing Headers in MDdaemon email server

Recently we were asked to acquire a new domain for the company and start to implement it to be our main web domain name and to map email accounts to it.   The company already had another domain names for years with .net extension and the new domain was with .com

We have responded to the request and acquired the new domain, chnaged the DNS records and MX records to point to the new domain and then we have configured email alias with the new domain for the existing email accounts, and finally reconfigured email clients to use the new alias when sending email.   The company uses MDaemon email server v.12 and every thing was going fine till we had some complains that there are certain domain refuse to accept email from the company’s usesr and it was considered spam.  and failure message sent by the other mail server contained something like this:

Transfer Complete  Wed 2011-11-16 03:27:58: <– 554 sorry, Spam detected by SpamAssassin (#5.3.4)

And other mail servers replied with something similar considering it was spam.

After deep analysis we noted that the problem was in the domain translation for the mail server and the mail clients, that is the MDaemon was configured originally to be a .net domain, while the mail client send email as .com domain,   Spam filters consider this as spam.

After searching on the internet and the knowledge base on MDaemon web site we found a good option that fixed this and simplified our work.  The Option was “Header Translation” Under Setup > Default Domain & Servers:

We have added the existing header header text:  company.net  and the New header test: company.com

Since then, no more spam failuer messages

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How to edit Power Point Slide Show

Have you recieved one day a Power Point slide show that you can only view and wished you could edit it to add new slides or copy some of its slides or graphics?   For me, I had, and many times I recieve this kind of files and thought it is a kind of protection of slide shows to prevent editing them, and sometimes I thought saving a Power Point presenation as a slide show helps reducing its size, but it was not like that.

A power point slide show (ppx) is a presenation file (ppt) and saved as a slide show (by save as PowerPoint Show).   When you need to edit this type of file, you can simply rename it to change its extension from PPX to PPT (just like that), you can open it with Power Point like any other presentation file.  But Ofcourse it wise to save a copy first.

Remember to enable the displaying the file extension option to be able to see extension as in Windows XP and Windows 7 it is automatically hides extensions of known file types.   To do that open windows explorer window and from Tools>Folder Option, Click on view tab, then uncheck the box beside “Hide extensions for known file types”.

If the Tools menu does not exist in the explorer window, simply press Alt key and the menu will appear.

If you have a comment, please share it below and if you have twaeks like this and want to share with us, please send to mohamed@mzedan.com

VPN Clients can not access internal network through ISA 2006

I had a VPN access setup through ISA server 2006 that allow remote access users with dial-in permission to access the internal corporate network and it was working fine for several months, and suddenly we found that the remote access users can successfully dial-in and authenticate with no problems but they can not access any internal network resources.  I tried to monitor the connection though ISA server monitoring tool but I could not find any records related to it. Tried also to look in the Routing and Remote access service, the server event logging, also with no luck.

Tried to search on the internet and I found some post talking about the default gateway which gave me a hint.

I have reviewed what changes we made recently, and I found the problem.

Recently, we made another subnet for users separate from the servers subnet and there is a router route traffic between them, and we changes the DHCP server IP address to be in the new subnet with default gate way of the new subnet.

The ISA VPN client access setup was configured to assign IP addresses from the DHCP server of the new users subnet, and the IP address is given to the users with no problem,  but we noticed that the default gateway of the VPN clients is the default gateway of the users subnet, and when they try to access internal network through ISA server they can not,  that’s because the ISA server access the internal network through the servers gateway not the users gateway.

I solved the problem by changing the VPN configuration of the ISA server to assign the IP address from a static pool in the servers subnet instead of the DHCP server and the problem was solved.

Simple Windows Server Backup Script – Part 1 2003


“Backup”  is a word every system administrator feel shake in his body when
someone mention something wrong about it.   Every system , should have its
backup and backup/restore procedure.  I will not get more into explain what
backup is and why it is important.

I remember when working with Windows NT 4.0 about 12 years ago how it forced us
to use backup on tapes, and how we must wait till the tape end catalog, and how
it took very long time to backup or restore,  unless you had the budget to buy
special backup software.   Also I remember how it was great when we found that
we can take an image of the entire disk using programs like Norton Ghost.

Fortunately , things are better now, if you did not get approval for buying
expensive backup software, you still can use automatic scheduled backup wit
archiving of old backup.   Here I will present two simple solutions for windows
2003 & 2008 using what we already have in the server like NTBACKUP and WBADMIN.

Here, I will present two scripts to give you an idea about using the command
line backup tools and schedule to run on daily basis and an example of
archiving:

Suppose that you have 2003 server (Server01) and you want to schedule backup for
System Drive C: , System State, and a data folder on Drive D:

1-  Make a selection of what to back and save it as a selection file.

Start Windows Backup, or from the command prompt run ntbackup.exe (start
in advanced mode, not the wizard mode)
.  Go to Backup Tab and
select Whole Drive C: and the folder in Drive D:  and Do not forget to check the
System State.

2- From Job Menu, save your selection as a .bks file.  E.g.  D:\Scripts\Winbackup.bks


3- Suppose you will take backup every day to drive X: and you want to keep the
backups of yesterday and the day before yesterday accessible.    Example, create
three folders in drive X: (Today, Yesterday, Old).

4- Create a batch file to execute ntbackup with the saved selection into Today
Folder, while keeping the backup of Yesterday and the day before:

    X:    cd\

    cd old

    del *.* /q

    cd ..

    rd old

    ren Yesterday Old

    ren Today Yesterday

    md Today

Then add the command to execute the NTBACKUP:

C:\Windows\system32\NTBACKUP.EXE
backup “@D:\scripts\WinBackup.bks” /n “Server01” /d “Server01 %date% %time%”
/v:yes /r:no /rs:no /hc:off /m normal /j “Server01 Daily Backup” /l:s /f
“X:\Today\Server01_Win.bkf”
 

5- Save the batch file into your “D:\scripts”  folder
as  “DailyBackup.bat”.
You can test the script by double click on the .bat file in windows explorer or
by opening the command prompt ( Start > run > cmd > press Enter)  then type
“d:\scripts\dailybackup.bat”

You will notice that will create the  folder “Today” in
X: then will create the backup file “Server01_Win.bkf”
inside it.   After the backup finish, if you execute the batch file again, the “Today” folder
will be renamed to“Yesterday” and
a new Today folder will be created.

If you execute it once more, the “Yesterday” folder
will be renamed to “Old”,
and “Today” folder
will be renamed to “Yesterday”,
and so on….

By Executing this simple script you will have a full backup for the past three
days,  you can increase the number of archives as you need by changing the
script.  For example by creating folders with the names of week days.

6- Now schedule the DailyBackup.bat to run on daily basis at a specific time,
Let’s say you want it to be automatically executed everyday at 3:00 AM.

In windows 2003,  open the Task Scheduler:     Control Panel > Add Scheduled
Task




Click Next, Then Click Browse and select the batch file you saved in step #5


Give a name to your scheduled Task, and select Perform this task Daily


Click Next to Select the Time to run the Task automatically


Click Next and Enter the Credentials of and Administrator or Backup Operator
Account,  Click Next then Finish.

You can Review the Daily Backup Task report from the Log Viewer in Task
Scheduler, and The Backup Report from The report viewer in NTBACKUP.

Also, it is wise to copy the Created BKF file to an external Storage on Daily
Basis.

In Part 2, I will explain hot to create a batch file with the WBADMIN backup
tool for windows 2008.

 

Quality management in IT Projects

 

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Project quality management includes the processes and activities that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

Project Quality Management Processes include the following:

  1. Plan Quality: Identifying quality requirements or standards for the project and the product
  2. Perform quality assurance: Auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements
  3. Perform quality control: Monitoring and recording results of executing quality activities to assess performance and recommend changes

These processes interact with processes in other knowledge areas and each process can involve efforts from one or more person or groups based on project requirements.   Each process occurs at least once in every project and occurs in one or more of the project phases.

Project Quality Management addresses the management of the project and its product.  Product quality measurements are specific to the product and failure to meet product or project quality requirements can have serious negative consequences for the stakeholders.

Quality vs. Grade

Quality:  is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.

Grade: is a category assigned to products having the same functional use but different technical characteristics.

A product can be of high quality (no obvious defects) and low grade (a limited number of features), or of low quality (many defects) and high grade (numerous features).  The project manager and the project management team are responsible of the tradeoffs involved to deliver the required levels of quality and grade.

Precision vs. Accuracy

Precision means the values of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter (show the same results under the same conditions).

Accuracy means that the measured values are very close to the true value (degree of closeness to true value).

Precise measurements are not necessarily accurate.  A very accurate measurement is not necessarily precise.  The project management team must determine the levels of accuracy and precision.

Project Management and Quality management recognize the importance of:

  • Customer satisfaction:  Understanding and managing expectations do that customer requirements are met.
  • Prevention over inspection:  Quality is planned, designed, and built in – not inspected in.  The cost of preventing mistakes is much less than of correcting them when inspected.
  • Continuous improvement:   The plan-do-check-act is the basis for quality improvement.  Other initiatives such as TQM and Six Sigma, should improve the quality of the project and the product.
  • Management responsibility:   Success requires participation of all team members, but remains the responsibility of the management to provide the resources needed to succeed.

Cost of Quality (COQ)

Refers to the total cost of all efforts related to quality through the product life cycle. Project decisions can impact operational costs of quality.

The Quality Management Processes:

Quality management Processes
A Process Inputs and Outputs

1.     Plan Quality

Is the process of identifying quality requirements and standards for the project and its product, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance and should be performed in parallel with the other project planning processes.    For example, proposed changes in product to meet a quality standard may require cost or schedule adjustments and a risk analysis of the impacts.

1.1  Plan Quality: Inputs

 a. Scope base Line:

  • Scope statement:  Project description, deliverables, acceptance criteria.
  • WBS: The work packages and the control accounts to measure performance.
  • WBS Dictionary:  technical information for WBS elements

b. Stakeholder Register:   Identifies the stakeholders with particular interests in, or impact on quality.

c.  Cost Performance Baseline:  Documents the accepted time phase used measure cost performance

d.  Schedule Baseline:  Documents the accepted schedule performance measures.

e.  Risk Register:  Contains information on threats and opportunities impact quality requirements.

f. Enterprise Environmental Factors:  Factors that influence the Plan Quality Process such as Governmental regulations, rules, standards, working conditions.

g. Organizational Process Assets:  Assets that influence the Plan Quality Process such as, quality polices/procedures, lessons learned from previous projects, quality policy as endorsed by senior management.  If there is no quality policy, the project management team needs to develop a quality policy for the project and to ensure that the project stakeholders are fully aware of the policy used.

1.2  Plan Quality: Tools and Techniques

  1. Cost – Benefit Analysis:   A business case for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.
  2. Cost of Quality (COQ):  Costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product for conformance to requirements and rework.   Failure costs (cost of poor quality) categorized into internal (by the project) and external (by the customer).
  3. Control Charts:   Charts used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance.  Control limits are set by the project management and appropriate stakeholders to reflect points of corrective actions.
  4. Benchmarking:  Comparing actual or planned practices to other projects to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvements, and provide basis for measuring performance.
  5. Design of Experiments:  DOE is a statistical method for identifying which factors may influence variables of a product.  DOE should be used to determine the number and type of tests and their impact on costs and quality.
  6. Statistical Sampling:  Involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection
  7. Flowcharting:  A graphical presentation of a process showing the relationship among processes. Flowcharting can help anticipate quality problems that might occur.
  8. Quality Management Methodologies:  Six Sigma, CMMI, etc…
  9. Additional Quality Planning Tools:  Such as Brainstorming, Affinity Diagrams, Force field analysis, Matrix Diagrams, Prioritization Matrices.

1.3  Plan Quality: Outputs

a.  Quality Management Plan:  Describes how the project management team will implement the quality policy.  The plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information to reduce cost of rework.

b.  Quality Metrics:  Operational definitions that describe a project or product attribute and how quality control will measure it.  Example metrics: on-time performance, budget control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, reliability.

c.  Quality Checklists:  Structured tools used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.  Quality checklists are used in the quality control process.

d.  Process Improvement Plan:  Details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities which enhance their value, the following areas are considered:

  • Process boundaries: Purpose of processes, start and end, inputs and outputs, data required owner and stakeholders.
  • Process Configuration: Graphic depiction of processes with interfaces to facilitate analysis.
  • Process metrics:  With control limits allows analysis of process efficiency.
  • Targets for improved performance: Guides to improvement activities.

e.  Project Document Updates:  Stakeholder register and responsibility assignment Matrix.

2.     Perform Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance is the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.  Quality Assurance may be provided by the project team, the management, the customer, or sponsor as well stakeholders.

Quality Assurance also provides process improvement to reduce waste and eliminate activities do not add value which results increased level of efficiency and effectiveness.

2.1  Perform Quality Assurance: Inputs

a.  Project Management Plan:  which also include the following:

  • Quality management plan:  Describes how quality assurance will be performed.
  • Process improvement plan: Steps for analyzing processes to identify activities which enhance their value.

b.  Quality Metrics:  As described in 1.3.b

c.  Work Performance Information:  Performance information collected from the activities to support auditing.  It includes:

  • Technical performance measures
  • Project deliverables status
  • Schedule progress
  • Costs incurred

c.  Quality Control Measurements:  They are the results of quality control activities and used to analyze and evaluate the quality standards and processes.

2.2  Perform Quality Assurance: Tools and Techniques

  1. Plan Quality Tools:  as described in 1.2 can also be used for quality assurance
  2. Quality Audits:  A structured, independent review to determine whether project activities comply with policies processes, and procedures.  They may be scheduled or random and may be conducted by internal or external auditors to confirm the implementation of approved change requests, corrective actions and preventive actions.
  3. Process Analysis:  Which follows the steps in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.  This analysis examines problems, constrains and non-value-added activities identified.  This analysis also includes problem identification to discover causes and develop preventive actions.

2.3  Perform Quality Assurance: Outputs

  1. Process Assets Updates:  Elements of the organizational process assets that may be updated.
  2. Change Requests:  Created and used as input into the Perform Integrated Change Control to allow full consideration of the recommended improvements.  Change requests can be used to take corrective action or preventive action.
  3. Project Management Plan Updates:  May update Quality, Schedule or Cost Management Plans.
  4. Project Document Updates:  Updates quality audit reports, training plans and process documentation.

 3.     Perform Quality Control:

The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.  Quality standards include project processes and product goals.  Project results include deliverables and project management results.  Quality control activities identify causes of poor process or product quality and recommend/take action to eliminate them.  The project team must know the difference between:

  • Prevention (keep errors out of the process) and inspection (keep errors out of the customer’s hands)
  • Attribute Sampling (the result conforms or does not conform) and Variables Sampling (the result measures the degree of conformity)
  • Tolerance (range of accepted results) and Control Limits (thresholds)

3.1  Perform Quality Control: Inputs

a.  Project Management Plan: This includes the quality management plan which is used to describe how quality control will be performed.

b.  Quality Metrics:  As described in 1.3.b

c.  Quality Checklists as described in 1.3.c

d.  Work Performance measurements: Produce metrics to evaluate planned vs. actual for:

  • Technical performance
  • Schedule performance
  • Cost performance

e.  Approved Change Requests:  The timely implementation of approved changes needs to be verified.

f.  Process Assets: Assets that can influence the Perform Quality Control Process which includes:

  • Quality standards and policies
  • Standard work guidelines
  • Issue and defect reporting procedures and polices

3.2  Perform Quality Control: Tools and Techniques

  1. Cause and Effect Diagrams:  illustrate how factors linked to problems or effects.  A possible root cause can be uncovered by asking “why” or “how” along one of the lines.
  2. Control Charts:  As described in 1.2.c.  Control Charts illustrate how a process behaves over time.  They answer the question “Is the process variance within acceptable limits?” and help assess whether the application of process changes resulted in desired improvements.
  3. Flowcharting:  As described in 1.2.g.  Used to determine a falling process steps and identify improvement opportunities.
  4. Histogram:  Vertical bar chart showing how often a variable state occurred.  Each column represents an attribute or characteristic.   Helps illustrates the cause of problem by a number and heights of the bars.
  5. Pareto Chart:  Shows how many defects were generated by type or category of causes.
  6. Run chart:  A line graph shows data points plotted in the order in which they occur and shows the history and pattern of variation.  Trend analysis is performed using run charts to monitor Technical performance and Cost and Schedule Performance.
  7. Scatter Diagram:  Shows the relationship between two variables and allows the quality team to study and identify the possible relationship between changes in two variables.
  8. Statistical Sampling:  Samples are selected and tested as defined in the quality plan.
  9. Inspection:  The examination of a work product to determine whether it conforms to documented standards.
  10. j.        Approved Change Requests Review

3.3  Perform Quality Control: Outputs

  1. Quality Control Measurements:  Documented results of quality control activities.
  2. Validated Changes:  Changed or repaired items are inspected and accepted or rejected.  Rejected items may require rework.
  3. Validated Deliverables:  This is the goal of quality control.
  4. Process Assets Updates:  Such as Completed checklists and lessons learned.
  5. Change Requests:  If a corrective or preventive action requires a change in the project management plan, a change request should be initiated.
  6. Project Management Plan Updates including the quality management and process improvement plans.
  7. Project document Updates including the quality standards.

Classic Mistakes in Software Projects

Do you need to rescue a project that’s behind schedule? Add more people! Do you want to reduce your schedule? Schedule more aggressively! Is one of your key contributors aggravating the rest of the team? Wait until the end of the project to fire him! Do you have a rush project to complete? Take whatever developers are available right now and get started as soon as possible!

Developers, managers, and customers usually have good reasons for making the decisions they do, and the seductive appeal of the classic mistakes is part of the reason these mistakes have been made so often. But because they have been made so many times, their consequences have become easy to predict, and they rarely produce the results that people hope for.

Read the Original text on Classic Mistakes Enumerated

Contingency Vs Mitigation Planning

Preface:

This paper identifies the Mitigation Planning and the Contingency planning and describes the differences between them.

Every project face some risks may lead to taking a decision for not continuing the project or impact business continuity, therefore Risk Management is an important area for Projects and Organizations.

Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives, whether positive or negative).  Risks can come from uncertainty in financial markets, project failures, legal liabilities, accidents, natural causes and disasters as well as deliberate attacks.  Several risk management standards have been developed by the Project Management Institute including methods, definitions and goals.

The strategies to manage risk include transferring the risk to another party, avoiding the risk, reducing the negative effect of the risk, and accepting some or all of the consequences of a particular risk.

In ideal risk management, a prioritization process is followed whereby the risks with the greatest loss and the greatest probability of occurring are handled first, and risks with lower probability of occurrence and lower loss are handled in descending order.

Mitigation planning and Contingency Planning are parts of the Risk Management.

 

Mitigation planning:

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) identifies specific principles of risk management and the process of risk management consists of several steps.  One of these steps is the Mitigation or Solution of risks using available technological, human and organizational resources.   Mitigation efforts attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether, or to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur.

Mitigation is mainly about knowing and avoiding unnecessary risks. This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property.

However, specialists can be hired to conduct risk identification and assessment surveys.  Purchase of insurance covering the most prominent identified risks is a common measure.

Risk mitigation measures are usually formulated according to one or more of the following major risk options, which are:

1. Design a new business process with adequate built-in risk control and containment measures from the start.

2. Periodically re-assess risks that are accepted in ongoing processes as a normal feature of business operations and modify mitigation measures.

3. Transfer risks to an external agency (e.g. an insurance company)

4. Avoid risks altogether (e.g. by closing down a particular high-risk business area)

Contingency planning:

It is substituting one risk for another, so that if the undesirable event occurs you have a “Plan B” which can compensate for the ill consequences.

Also known as a worst-case scenario plan, backup plan, or a disaster recovery plan, the contingency plan is simply a secondary or alternative course of action that can be implemented in the event that the primary approach fails to function as it should. Plans of this type allow businesses and other entities to quickly adapt to changing circumstances and remain in operation, sometimes with very little inconvenience or loss of revenue. It is not unusual for organizations of different types to have both a master contingency plan that is relevant to the entire organization, as well as plans that are geared toward rapid response in specific areas of the operation.

A contingency plan is often developed by identifying possible breakdowns in the usual flow of operations, and developing strategies that make it possible to overcome those breakdowns and continue the function of the organization.

First, the plan allows the day to day operations of the business to continue without a great deal of interruption or interference.  
Next, the backup plan is capable of remaining functional for as long as it takes to restore proper function of the primary plan. 
Last, the emergency plan minimizes inconvenience to customers, allowing the business to continue providing goods and services in an orderly and time-efficient manner.

Business and government contingency plans need to include planning for marketing to gain stakeholder support and understanding. Stakeholders need to be kept informed of the reasons for any changes, the vision of the end result and the proposed plan for getting there.

What is Google AdSense

 

 

There is so much talk about how the web changes traditional business models.  In the most basic sense, a business model is the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself — that is, generate revenue. The business model spells-out how a company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain.  

Radio and later television programming has been broadcasted over the airwaves free to anyone with a receiver for much of the past century. The broadcaster is part of a complex network of distributors, content creators, advertisers (and their agencies), and listeners or viewers.     Who makes money and how much is not always clear at the outset.     The bottom line depends on many competing factors.   Internet commerce gave rise to new kinds of business models.   The web is also likely to reinvent tried-and-true models. Advertising is a perfect example.  The Web has popularized the advertising model and broadened its applicability to a wide array of goods and services.

Advertising Model

The web advertising model is an extension of the traditional media broadcast model. The broadcaster, in this case, a web site, provides content (usually, but not necessarily, for free) and services (like email, IM, blogs) mixed with advertising messages in the form of banner ads. The banner ads may be the major or sole source of revenue for the broadcaster. The broadcaster may be a content creator or a distributor of content created elsewhere. The advertising model works best when the volume of viewer traffic is large or highly specialized.

What is Google AdSense?

AdSense is an ad serving application run by Google Inc.  Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text, image, and video advertisements on their websites. These advertisements are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis.     In Q1 2010, Google earned US$2.04 billion ($8.16 billion annualized), or 30% of total revenue, through AdSense.

Google’s earns most of its revenue by allowing other website owners to advertise on their search result pages. All this is managed through a program they call AdWords.

Now individuals can earn a share of the revenue that Google earns from AdWords by displaying these same text ads on their site.  In other words, they’re helping Google advertise and get paid a percentage of what Google earns.    This program is called AdSense.

Every website owner should at least consider the program.  Even if the site is just for information purposes, the owner can still participate and make decent money with AdSense — or at least enough to fund his website. 

 

How AdSense works?

  • The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage.
  • Each time this page is visited, the JavaScript code display content fetched from Google’s servers.
  • Google’s servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords. If keywords have been cached already, advertisements are served for those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system.
  • For site-targeted advertisements, the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements.
  • Search advertisements are added to the list of results after the visitor performs a search.
  • Because the JavaScript is sent to the Web browser when the page is requested, it is possible for other website owners to copy the JavaScript code into their own webpages. To protect against this type of fraud, AdSense customers can specify the pages on which advertisements should be shown. AdSense then ignores clicks from pages other than those specified.

How much can a site owner earn with AdSense?

A site owner will earn per ad that is clicked, the commission he receives per click depends on how much advertisers are paying Google for the particular ad.    The site owner will earn a share of that amount.  The earnings range from 2 cents to $15 per click, and he can login to his account at any time and see the total amount of revenue he has generated that day, week, month, year, etc.